Enter author surname:. Display : 25 50 Previous record Next record. Actions Tools Choose a colour. An introductory chapter describes the history of concepts in plant reproduction, variation, heredity and breeding. This is followed by chapters on population genetics, environmental influences, summaries of genetic variation in major tree species, and application of the information in silviculture, Geographic variation in forest trees: genetic basis and application of knowledge in silviculture. This is followed by chapters on population genetics population genetics Subject Category: Miscellaneous see more details , environmental influences, summaries of genetic variation genetic variation Subject Category: Properties see more details in major tree species, and application of the information in silviculture, especially reforestation and selection of seed.
The final chapter discusses conservation of genetic resources. There are indexes to species and subjects. Back to top. Edit annotation. Cancel Edit annotation.
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تنوع جغرافیایی صفات بذر، برگ و نونهال بادامک (Amygdalus scoparia) در استان فارس
How much of it is shaped by environmental variation and adaptation? First, let us look at the larger picture: are tree species distributed according to any environmental parameter varying at the geographical scale of individual trees? There are some reasons to think this is the case, at least in landscapes displaying microgeographic variation in parameters affecting tree fitness.
John et al. These examples illustrate that neutral processes are not sufficient to explain species distributions, even at small spatial scales. It is not a big conceptual leap to imagine that the same holds true for genotypes within populations of a single species, given that within-population phenotypic variance can be as large as, or larger than, interspecific variance Bangert et al.
Proofs that microgeographic environmental gradients and contrasts influence genotype and phenotype distribution are rare but consistent: examples are known from a variety of species and habitats. In Engelmann spruce Picea engelmannii , Mitton et al.
In a similar study, in European beech Fagus sylvatica , Jump et al. A similar study in Norway spruce Scalfi et al. In a further study, six AFLP markers out of about 1, were found to be divergent between sub-populations of the same species, submitted to the same environmental contrasts Brousseau et al. These studies indicate that microgeographic variation contributes to shape within-stand genetic structure.
Most of them explicitly showed that local adaptation occurs and can be detected, provided that the necessary trait, genetic and environmental information are gathered. The approach shared by all these studies is straightforward: identify an environmental gradient or contrast and look for genotype- or trait- environment associations. Note that these gradients, although identified by a single variable, probably represent bundles of correlated variables e.
Table 1 Summary of the studies about microgeographic genetic variation in forest trees. Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank Caroline Scotti-Saintagne for fruitful discussions and for critically reading the manuscript. For Ecol Manag — Google Scholar. Antonovics J Evolution in closely adjacent plant populations X: long-term persistence of prereproductive isolation at a mine boundary. Heredity —37 PubMed Google Scholar.
Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations
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