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The Three Aspects of Effectiveness of Multilateral Environmental Agreements

International institutions and the consequences of their interplay are emerging as a major agenda item for research and policy. As governments enter into an ever-increasing number of international agreements, questions arise about the overlap of issues, jurisdiction and membership. Biosafety, which is an issue that is relevant to numerous institutions, offers an excellent case study for exploring and applying interplay in practical terms.

Edited by Yasuko Kameyama, Agus P. Soejahmoen and Norichika Kanie. B eyond the Kyoto Protocol's first containment period, an intense and growing international debate over the future climate change regime has emerged. Countries in Asia have particularly high stakes in this regime given the region's high population, growing greenhouse gas emissions, burgeoning economies and vulnerabilities to the impact of climate change. Limited capacity, however, has hampered the participation of many Asian countries in the international debate.

Interlinkages and the effectiveness of multilateral environmental agreements /

Payne, in International Legal Materials 46 , pp. See CoP17 Doc. CITES trade embargoes have also been imposed for non-compliance with other obligations under the Convention, including inadequate reporting and inadequate ivory controls; for a complete list see P. Asia Pacific Journal of Environmental Law 20 , forthcoming. Sampson and W. Chambers eds.

Interlinkages and the Effectiveness of Multilateral Environmental Agreements

One difficulty here is that part of the assessment will have to be counterfactual; i. Jacobson and E. Weiss and H. Jacobson eds. Haas, R.

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    • See P. Under Article XIII of the Convention, the secretariat is empowered to follow up on alleged infractions, and to draw them to public attention. In the process, NGO members have carried out detailed investigations of illegal trade in wildlife and wildlife products, and exposed many suspicious commercial transactions, poaching and smuggling operations. Meith ed. In those days, very few customs inspectors had ever heard of CITES, let alone that their government had ratified the treaty and regularly reported that it was in full compliance with its terms.

      When the passenger insisted on a document, they would either grab some form and stamp it — we built up the most peculiar collection of so-called import documents — or come up with highly ingenuous authoritative explanations why no form was required in this particular case. Others would proceed to a phytosanitary inspection, including the occasional fumigation — one customs officer at Copenhagen airport informed me that he was far more concerned about the earth in the flowerpot than about the cactus, and returned Little Red Riding Hood naked, without her pot. Once, when travelling to the IUCN General Assembly in Ashkhabad with other staff members and walking through the red gate at Moscow airport even though the others had implored me not to do it lest we all end up in a gulag , I was kept in custody for an hour until the competent official showed up and allowed me, exceptionally, to move on with the cactus, in the interest of international ecological cooperation and in order not to miss my connecting flight.

      As time went by, more and more customs services did become familiar with the Convention, and many international airports became cactus-proof or at least cactus-wise. Yet any customs officer who then proudly produced a copy of the treaty text, plus the appropriate form, still faced the problem of identifying the specimen at hand. One obvious risk was to hit upon the same embarrassed customs inspector twice in a row — as happened to me at my hometown airport in Munich: What that Bavarian customs officer asked me to do with that cactus in the native Bavarian dialect is unfit for print, and therefore could not be fully included in my report to the national CITES authority.

      The Convention has since evolved worldwide, to encompass a near-universal membership of contracting States. Rather than duplicating existing bureaucracies, though, CITES implementation practice continues to make systematic use of available administrative structures such as national customs services. Similar arrangements 64 See J.

      Gehring eds. Lemahieu and A. Me eds. Nollkaemper and I. Plakokefalos eds. Sands and J. Peel, Principles of International Environmental Law, 3rd edn.

      Other references

      Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , p. Jayakumar, T. Koh, R. Beckman and H. Phan eds. Marsden and E. Schneider and J. Moreover, merely recording the reductions in overall pollution output does not necessarily tell us much about the actual impact of a treaty on environmental quality in the States directly concerned.

      Beyerlin, P. Stoll and R. Wolfrum eds. Helm ed. Continuing Research Series E April One of the key outputs of the Rio Summit was to highlight and focus attention on the environment, spawning as a result a host of conventions, conferences and other activities related to different environmental issues collectively called the 'Rio Agreements'.

      These activities have generated a number of multilateral environment agreements MEAs , the most recent of them being the Kyoto Protocol promulgated in December Each of these MEAs require that countries develop specific implementation mechanisms and fulfill obligations involving reporting, training, public education, and other activities.

      The MEA themes, in fact, lie at the heart of global environmental issues such as CO2 reduction, eco-efficiency, land degradation, energy systems, technology innovation, etc. Incentive structures - fiscal systems, trade systems and liability systems - have also been proposed as a means of realizing the goals of these MEAs. The paper has two components: firstly, it will attempt to build synergies between urban areas and the MEAs in a two way process - how do cities contribute to the conditions and problems addressed by these MEAs?