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They write letters of application for these roles and are interviewed. We have high expectations of behaviour and learning and this is reflected in our Behaviour Policy. The children are encouraged to make good choices and to avoid being influenced by others to make bad choices. In Key Stage 2 the Mayor works with our children each year, on their visit to Winchester Guildhall, to help them learn about the rule of law and how this protects you.
Our curriculum also has opportunities to explore liberty and the context of this in different periods, for example through our Victorian unit , Coaling and Mining in Geography and the impact of industrialisation on the working classes, and how individual liberty and freedom affected different parts of society in our study of the rRomans, Greeks and Egyptians. Children are taught to be co-operative and collaborative, to be supportive of each other and to look for similarities while being understanding of differences.
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Mutual respect is also promoted through our programme of collective worship and visiting speakers. We deal firmly with any instances of bullying behaviour, including the use of racist or homophobic language. Among them we find pagan Greek men of letters, scholars and philosophers, who contrast the whole of their cultural knowledge with the power of the saints. They may as well be physicians, claiming superiority due to the methods of Hippocrates and Galen and thus challenging the healers in the medical field.
That the entire religious context moves within the realm of illness, allows the hagiographers to formulate their views on heresies in terms of spiritual and physical maladies and hence Orthodox, primarily non-thaumaturgic rituals also become endowed by powers that combat miraculously both bodily deformities and unorthodox beliefs. The reasons for which non-Christians and heretics turned to the saints moved within a wide range, as did the results of their consultations: one might find his way to the saint through Christian friends or family mem8. In the case of saint Cyrus and John we encounter the conscious replacement of the cultfirst, probably that of the cult site and with time passing, the previous cult practice temple sleep was also taken over by the Christians.
As a consequence of the cure, the healed and converted supplicant may return to his co-religionists, and after he narrates his own experience, the story may end with the conversion of the entire group. In special circumstances, giving up their former pagan or sectarian beliefs, they might become members of a lay community centered on the cult; or, official church personnel, priests, wardens, deacons, and even the saints hagiographer.
Cosmas and Damian had a hagiographer, who was a hereticand remained so, as the wholly curious story attested to in KDM A man, a member of an unspecified heretical sect, although he was not sick, went to the Saturday night vigil of the saints and falling there asleep, he underwent a strange test of faith.
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The nature of heretics is being incredulous wrote the miracle writer and thus Cosmas and Damian appeared to the man not to convince him of becoming orthodox there is no attempt at this in the whole miracle but to dispel his incredulity in the miracle working capacity of the saints. The healer indicated the remedy for a sick noblewoman lying nearby and our man was doubly tried: whether he believes the repeating dreams and whether he had the courage to approach the lady and tell her the saints recommendations.
After all that had happened, the saints benefited the heretic with an oracle, saying that he would become the head of the sect. Meanwhile he started to frequent regularly the saints church and when the oracle came true in the time indicated, he had set himself the task of writing the saints miracles, a task that he considered as a way to the true faith: Composing hagiography made one a hagiographer. He was only modestly interested in heretics;14 he was more involved with Greek pagans and conversion to Christianity. Yet the stating of simple conversion was soon not enough: with the radicalization of Christological debates, the healer could require This is a clear summary of everything that a person newly converted to Christianity, and what is more, Orthodox Cyrillian Christianity, had to believe and perform.
The taking of the Eucharist is here an intermediate element of the act of confession, which follows baptism and takes place together with the statement of the credo. As we shall see, communion acquired a central role in numerous miracles of incubation healers but it figured exclusively in connection with pagans, Jews or heretics and became the most elaborate symbol of what the saint or his hagiographer defined as Orthodox.
MT, The sick man, arriving at the church, did not dare to undergo incubation together with the rest of the patients, exactly because he was well aware of being considered a heretic.
GECSER, O.-Promoting the Saints.pdf
Thus he was waiting for the curative dream in an external hall. During the first visit of the saints he witnessed in his dream how they dissuaded each other from saving him, saying, let him wait, if he is delaying to convert: the orthodox patients have priority. In the second dream the dialogue is similar, but finally one of the saints urges the other to heal the heretic, as quickly as he can, so that he would not occupy the place of the orthodox, and after a miraculous intervention they order him to leave the sanctuary, because we hate you for your heresy.
From the viewpoint of the saints, the hagiographer, and his readers, Orthodoxy in this miracle labeled the credo established by the Council of Nicea , and confirmed by the councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon , in the centre of which stood the definition of Christs double nature: at once divine and human. In Nicea they condemned Arius, who taught that Christ the Son was subject to the Father, and not of the same nature with him.
In Ephesus they condemned Nestorius who emphasized Christs human nature: as Mary gave birth to the human Jesus, he denied the epithet Theotokos, the Bearer of God. The theological answer to the teachings of Nestorius was the monophysite movement, which proclaimed the one, exclusively divine nature of Christ, a teaching that from the fifth century onwards was supported by a decisive majority in Asia Minor, Syria, Persia and in Egypt and with time became an independent church. In Chalcedon, with the support of the emperor Marcianos and Pope Leo, the diphysites triumphed, those who believed in the two natures and their consubstantiality.
At the same time, by forging ecclesiastical authority from the political leadership of Constantinople, they made their credo the cornerstone of Orthodoxy. In the popularization or reinforcement of the dogmas, cult practices and miracle accounts played no small role; for in them often the very act of confession is the miracle or the saints personal siding. For example, in Saint Theclas martyrion in Seleucia there was an inscription in gilded mosaic on the wall, proclaiming to all people the consubstantiality of the holy and sublime Trinity.
The hagiographer cautiously attributed Symposius later conversion to this event: his return to Orthodoxy was The previously quoted story of the Arian confronting the Chalcedonian saints, is from the well-known and wide-spread miracle collection of Cosmas and Damian. It figures, however, in another corpus of the saints miracles as well: in a hitherto unknown version of Cosmas and Damian miracles came to light in Egypt, a collection, written in a simple style that most probably represents an earlier phase of their incubation cult.
But regardless of the analogous nature of the miracles, the reader is struck by the significantly different theological underpinning of these wondrous cures. In the version of the same miracle of the Arian heretic, the London Codex identifies the protagonist as one who had two illnesses: one was the grave physical illness All the details of the story are identical: the patient did not dare to sleep inside the church, knowing well, that he is of a creed contrary to that of the saints, and the saints sent him away with the same words, signaling the priority the Orthodox patients should enjoyonly the orthodoxies are turned upside-down: here the diphysite Chalcedonian is the heretic, and monophysites are numbered as Orthodox.
The same theological message is conveyed in the 19th miracle of the London Codex, the protagonist of which is a Nestorian man, who also accepted the latter sects hateful teachings, separating Christ after the Incarnation into two natures and never admitting His Mother to be the Bearer of God. He fell ill with a horrendous disease. Since his life was in peril because of an abscess on his chest, he wanted to see his daughter for the last time, who lived as a nun in the monastery next to the Church of Saints Cosmas and Damian: While the heretic was lying there and invoking the saints, somebody appeared to him and very angrily demanded that he should bow and say: In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was God, and everything that follows up to the verse The Word was made flesh and dwelled among us.
Rupprecht, ed. Having said this, he vanished.
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The saints appeared again to the man and testified that it was they who wanted to make him say this confession, and also revealed that beans would be the remedy for his illness. The man, having done as he was ordered, quickly found relief from his sickness.
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And until the end of his life he remained a right confessor of the one, undivided nature of God the Word and of that the Virgin Mary is the Bearer of God The text is clearly based on an anti-Chalcedonian creed. The error attributed to the Nestorian is that, according to him, Christ exists in two natures after the Incarnation.
Promoting the Saints
That is simply the dogma of Chalcedon, which the antiChalcedonian author of the miracle calls Nestorian. This miracle must have been dear to the scribe or to those who had commissioned the manuscript, since these two folia, where the record is, are outstandingly decorated in comparison with the simplicity of the rest of the codex. In the background of these features lies the fact that the major part of Egypt, together with Syria did not accept the Chalcedonian credo.
Seeing side by side the two versions of Cosmas and Damians miracles, the questions arise: whether the London Codex was a monophysite reworking of a diphysite text, written in Egypt for the anti-Chalcedonian adherents of the cult? Did a monophysite incubation cult exist at the place where the collection was read? Or quite the contrary: instead of representing a monophysite reworking, the Codex attests to a healing cult of originally monophysite character it actually did originate from Syria : a cult that after it reached the capital and it became really popular there, underwent a theological and dogmatic transformation?
Within the realm of Byzantine incubation we have evidence for both phenomena. Saint Artemios, who by the seventh century had become a prominent incubation healer in Constantinople, was himself an Arian and had been first venerated among Arians in Antioch. The expansion of his fame and the beginning of his veneration among the non-Arians can be Hence, [ More complex is the healing cult of Saint Dometius, a fourth-century minor incubation healer saint.
Based on the testimony of the Greek Vita, Dometius once went to the martyrion of Saint Cosmas and Damian in the town of Cyrrhus in northern Syria, near Aleppo , where he encountered a patient who had practiced incubation for a long time there to no avail.