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Fully referenced and indexed. The photograph forms part of the description. In this practical and thought-provoking book, three specialists in the field answer the questions that managers always ask, using perceptive case histories and. Ex library book in good condition Hard back edition with library stamps, small amount of damage to the bottom corner of the front and back covers. No highlighting in book. It challenges the conventional wisdoms of social sustainability and presents practical examples of projects that will help practitioners to think carefully and invatively about the situations they are addressing.
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Training their employees on the appropriate changes 4. Winning the support of the employees with the persuasiveness of the appropriate adjustments The objectives, content, and process of change should all be specified as part of a change management plan. People are resistant to change in organisations because it can be uncomfortable. The notion of doing things this way, because 'this is the way we have always done them', can be particularly hard to overcome Change management differs from project management in its ultimate objective.
Project management is restricted to the application of a set of tools and processes by a small group of professionals to achieve project goals.
On the other hand, change management emphasizes on the people side of change and targets leadership at all levels of an organization including executives, senior leaders, middle managers, supervisors, and staff. People are often concerned about the effect the change will have on them. Managing Change When approached with managing change, it is important to bear in mind that change management focuses on people and is about ensuring that change is systematically and lastingly implemented.
Reasons for Failure 1 The organization is not clear about the reasons for the change and the overall objectives Plays into the hands of vested interests 2 The organization fails to move quickly from speech to action Leads to mixed messages and gives resistance a better opportunity to focus 3 Leaders are not prepared for the change in management style required to manage a changed business or one where change is the norm Mentality of "now we are going to change and then we will get back to normal" causes failure Change is a constant; so a one-off program, which presumably has a start and a finish, does not address the long-term change in management style Reasons for Failure 4 The chosen change methodology or approach did not suit the business Pile methodology upon methodology and program upon program For example, an organization implements Six Sigma, balanced scorecard, and IIP methodology all at the same time 5 The organization has not been prepared and the internal culture 'pushed back' against change Reasons for Failure 6 The business 'rammed' certain functions with little regard to the overall objectives Changes one part of the process and not considered the impact up or downstream Causes panic and the organization looks for a quick win or tries to declare victory too soon 7 Leaders set strategic direction for the change and then they remained remote from the change, leaving the actual change to less motivated people Create a Sense of Urgency.
Help others see the need for change and the importance of acting immediately. Pull Together the Guiding Team. Make sure there is a powerful group guiding the change-one with leadership skills, credibility, communications ability, authority, analytical skills, and a sense of urgency. Decide What to Do 3.
The Theory and Practice of Change Management (5th ed.)
Develop the Change Vision and Strategy. Clarify how the future will be different from the past, and how you can make that future a reality. Make it Happen 4. Communicate for Understanding and Buy in. Make sure as many others as possible understand and accept the vision and the strategy. Empower Others to Act. Remove as many barriers as possible so that those who want to make the vision a reality can do so. Make it Happen 6. Produce Short-Term Wins. Create some visible, unambiguous successes as soon as possible.
Press harder and faster after the first successes. Be relentless with initiating change after change until the vision is a reality. Make It Stick 8. Create a New Culture. Hold on to the new ways of behaving, and make sure they succeed, until they become strong enough to replace old traditions. Achieve homeostasis the ability to maintain conditions for survival in a changing environment. Switch: Change to Next Level Changes occur in any environment, thus influencing educational institutions, it is essential for educational institutions to be able to cope with environmental change internal or external affecting day to day operations.
Change What to change to? How to change? Acquiring knowledge What to do Awareness skills How to do Disassociate old thoughts Attitude I will do it Incorporate your new thoughts Current Reality Difficult to Identify You are lucky, if any changes happens. Work place involves intense contacts with people, practical experience, working relationships with less capable colleagues, rivalry —driven people, gossiping people, self-centered people. Performance for the Day Thousand of tiny choices, in an endless procession, that confronts us every minute, unable to intellectualize, compelled us to react instinctively decisions , follows the path of least resistance.
For some, movement means improvement and is welcome, for others relocation produces agonising disruptions. But in spite of the forces mitigating against movement, such as dual-career families, many people do move around and do not have the roots and stability enjoyed by their grandparents.
Relationships are increasingly defined in functional terms and involvement is limited because of: o An increase in the number of relationships. The nature of peoples' relationships with organisations have changed because: o Accelerating change has created the need for continuous organisation development and renewal. The entire knowledge system in society is undergoing violent upheaval thus increasing the rate at which people must form and forget their images of reality. Page 5 These changes in things, places, people, organisations and ideas have demanded a new level of adaptability in order for individuals and organisations to cope.
People respond to an increase in the pace of change in different ways. Those who internalise the principle of acceleration make an unconscious compensation for the compression of time — they modify their durational expectancies. But some find this more difficult than others. Novelty This is the second major trend identified by Toffler. He argues that having to live at an accelerating pace is one thing when life situations are more or less familiar, but having to do so when faced by unfamiliar, strange or unprecedented situations is distinctly another.
The Theory and Practice of Change Management / Edition 5
And this is the reality for increasing numbers of people. Today the balance between the familiar and the unfamiliar is changing.
In Toffler's words, the novelty ratio is rising. Diversity Diversity is the third major trend. The Orwellian view that people will become mindless consumer-creatures, surrounded by standardised goods, educated in standardised schools, fed a diet of standardised mass culture and forced to adopt standardised styles of life could not be further from the truth, according to Toffler. Toffler summarises the consequences of these trends. He argues that when diversity converges with transience and novelty society is rocketed towards an historical crisis of adaptation.
The outcome is an environment so ephemeral, unfamiliar and complex that it threatens millions with adaptive breakdown.
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This breakdown is future shock. Tushman and his colleagues at Columbia , studied hundreds of companies in several industries over time. They found evidence to support existing theories about a consistent pattern of industry evolution. Early phases of experimentation and low growth give way to more rapid growth as a product gains acceptance and as dominant designs emerge. Later, demand levels off and eventually declines as more advanced or completely different products attract consumers' attention Figure 1.
They also found that within any industrial sector there are consistent patterns in the amount of change that occurs over time. Their evidence, summarised by Nadler and Tushman , suggests that whole industries go through periods of relatively minor change, and these periods are punctuated by intervals of major disturbance, or disequilibrium, when the whole product class and virtually all companies in the industry are affected.
These events may come from outside the industry or they may be initiated by one of the industry participants as it strives to gain a competitive advantage. During these periods of disequilibrium the effects are widespread. Almost all companies in the industry experience major change and those that fail to adapt tend to be acquired by others or drop out Figure 1.
This evidence points to the existence of two types of change: incremental and discontinuous change. Change in these periods builds on what has already been accomplished and has the flavour of continuous improvement. Figure 1. Page 7 Discontinuous change is a type of change that occurs during periods of disequilibrium.
Many writers, for example Tichy and Devanna , Kotter and Burke and Litwin , refer to it as transformational change. It involves a break with the past, a step function change rather than an extrapolation of past patterns of change and development.